Research News*

*The information contained in this section is gathered from public sources. The information has not been documented by or endorsed by the Institute or its members. It is provided for strictly informational purposes.

September 2013

Research:  Apple Cider Vinegar Drink – Reduction in Fasting Blood Sugar Levels

Research was published in the Journal of Functional Foods by Dr. Carol Johnston, Samantha Quagliano and Serena White of Arizona State University on the use of vinegar to manage blood sugar levels.

According to a foodnavigator-usa.com article on the study, the scientists determined that daily consumption of an 8 oz. glass of “Bragg Organic Apple Cider Vinegar Drink Sweet Stevia” for 12 weeks led to a significant reduction in fasting blood sugar levels as compared to the control group.  The article also notes that the researchers advised, “Purposeful integration of vinegar or acetic acid into the food matrix, beyond the standard dressings and sauces, may facilitate reductions in blood glucose concentrations in both those diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and those at risk for this disease.”  To read the article, please use this link.

May 2013

Effect of In Vitro Digestion on Free α-Dicarbonyl Compounds in Balsamic Vinegars
The Journal of Food Science featured the research, “Effect of In Vitro Digestion on Free α-Dicarbonyl Compounds in Balsamic Vinegars.” (Vol 78, Nr. 4, 2013).  The study was conducted by researchers from the Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, Viale Taramelli 12, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

The abstract notes the following:

“We investigated the influence of in vitro simulated digestion process on the content of the free α-dicarbonyl compounds most frequently found in food.  A Glyoxal (GO),methylglyoxal (MGO), and diacetyl (DA) aqueous standard mixture and 2 brands of balsamic vinegar were analyzed before and after exposure to digestive enzymes.  A strong matrix effect required adoption of validated RP-HPLC-DAD standard addition methods.  These results showed that the digestive enzymes markedly alter the concentrations of the exogenous free α-dicarbonyl compounds ingested with food; the extent of such changes varied with the α-dicarbonyl compound itself and the diet components, which determined important but different food matrix effects also during digestion.  The data also indicate that digestion can reduce the bioavailability of the toxic α-dicarbonyl compound ingested with food.  However, no firm conclusions can be drawn about a putative positive influence of digestion on the toxic potential of dietary α-dicarbonyl compounds, because their reaction in the presence of digestive enzymes likely gives rise to advanced glycation end products, which are involved in the development of chronic diseases.”

September 2010

Dr. Carol Johnston researches effects of vinegar on blood glucose

November 2010

Vinegar’s Use in Natural Cured Pork Products
The following information was issued by the University of Arkansas’ Food Safety Consortium, titled, “

Vinegar, Natural Source of Nitrate Provides Way to Safeguard Organic Pork.

The release advises of a solution to manufacture natural or organic cured pork products, without using nitrite or nitrate.  (If nitrite or nitrate is used, these products cannot be labeled natural or organic.)  According to the release, Dr. Joe Sebranek of Iowa State University, with support from the University of Arkansas’ Food Safety Consortium, found a solution by incorporating vinegar with lactate and vinegar with lemon powder (natural antimicrobial ingredients) into naturally cured pork products.  The results indicate that bacterial pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, were inhibited in the naturally cured pork products, but not to an equivalent level as in conventionally cured pork products.  Dr. Sebranek notes, “…With a naturally fermented vinegar product, you have a mixture of organic acids. It’s not typically used as a preservative but it provides some of the organic acids that are recognized antimicrobials. There’s a mixture in that kind of a product that essentially provides a preservative effect.”

October 2010

Use Vinegar to Clean Produce
In a 2003 study at the University of Florida, researchers tested disinfectants on strawberries contaminated with E. coli and other germs.  They found the vinegar mixture reduced bacteria by 90 percent and viruses by about 95 percent.”

April 2010

Type of Wood Impacts Sensory Qualities of Red Wine and Balsamic Vinegar
A study published in the March 2010 issue of Journal of Food Composition and Analysis reports that wood used for the aging of vinegar (balsamic and red wine) determines both the chemical composition and sensory properties.  The research, titled "Effect of wood on the phenolic profile and sensory properties of wine vinegar during ageing," was conducted in Spain.

February 2010

Antiglycemic Properties of Vinegar in Healthy Adults
Dr. Carol Johnston of Arizona State University (ASU) has been researching the use of vinegar in treating Type II diabetes. Most recently, Dr. Johnston and colleagues published research in the January 2010 online issue of Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, titled, "Examination of the Antiglycemic Properties of Vinegar in Healthy Adults." The researchers concluded that "The antiglycemic properties of vinegar are evident when small amounts of vinegar are ingested with meals composed of complex carbohydrates. In these situations, vinegar attenuated PPG (postprandial glycemia) by ~20% compared to placebo." In short, vinegar reduces PPG in healthy adults. Of note, the researchers state that taking steps to reduce PPG is recommended by the American Diabetes Association to limit complications of diabetes.

Effect of Organic Acids and Marination Ingredients on the Survival of Campylobacter jejuni on Meat - Wine Vinegar Mentioned
Researchers in Denmark undertook a study to determine whether marination of chicken meat in different food ingredients can be used to reduce populations of Campylobacter jejuni. The study was recently published in the Journal of Food Protection (Vol. 73, No.2, 2010, pages 258 - 265). Of note, the researchers write:

To compose an efficient antibacterial marinade, the antibacterial effects of different food ingredients on C. jejuni inoculated onto broiler meat medallions were evaluated. The most efficient food ingredient was wine vinegar either alone or in combination with red wine and soya [soy sauce]. The antibacterial activity of wine vinegar continued during 3 days of storage, whereas the other ingredients and acids were effective only within the first 24 h of storage. Wine vinegar is a fermentation product of wine and contains a combination of organic acids (acetic acid, tartaric acid and citric acid) and other fermentation metabolites. Lemon juice, which had the lowest pH (2.7), was not as effective as wine vinegar (pH 3.4) for reducing the population of C. jejuni.

June 2009

Vinegar May Prevent Build Up of Fat
According to foodnavigator-usa.com, a study published in the Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry found that animals fed a high-fat diet (50% of energy from fat) and supplemented with acetic acid at two different levels developed about 10 per cent less body fat than mice just eating the diet. The Japanese researchers, led by Tomoo Kondo from the Central Research Institute of the Mizkan Group Corporation, found that vinegar was working at a genetic level, by influencing genes linked to fatty acid oxidation and heat-generating (energy burning) proteins. According to the researchers, "The results of this study suggest that acetic acid suppresses body fat accumulation by increasing fatty oxidation and thermogenesis in the liver through PPAR-alpha.”

Saltiness and Acidity (using vinegar): Detection and Recognition Thresholds and Their Interaction Near the Threshold
In the recent issue of the Journal of Food Science (a publication of the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT)), a study was published titled, "Saltiness and Acidity: Detection and Recognition Thresholds and Their Interaction Near the Threshold." According to a recent IFT newsletter about the study, it was noted that vinegar may enhance saltiness and enable lower sodium content.

The interaction of saltiness and acidity at the threshold level was studied with 35 to 40 young female panelists. As a first step, the detection and recognition thresholds of salt, rice vinegar and rice black vinegar were measured. Levels were then varied. The researchers found that both the detection and recognition thresholds of salt were decreased with the existence of the added vinegar ingredient. This tendency was more pronounced with rice black vinegar than with rice vinegar. However, no significant changes in the threshold of both detection and recognition were observed when salt at the half concentration of the detection threshold was added to rice vinegar. The researchers noted that was an interesting finding “since this breaks the symmetry of the enhancement/suppression between saltiness and acidity commonly believed.

December 2007

Benefit of Vinegar Consumption in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Research was published in the November 2007 issue of Diabetes Care that demonstrated that vinegar ingestion at bedtime moderates waking glucose concentrations. The investigators at Arizona State University (ASU) found that the vinegar treatment was especially effective for the six subjects who had a typical fasting glucose greater than 7.2 mmol/L. Fasting glucose in these participants was reduced by 6 percent compared with a reduction of 0.7 percent in those with a typical fasting glucose less than 7.2 mmol/L. According to an article about the study, the researchers concluded, "Vinegar is widely available, it is affordable, and it is appealing as a remedy, but much more work is required to determine whether vinegar is a useful adjunct therapy for individuals with diabetes."

Recent Research Confirms Bactericidal Activity of Vinegar
Researchers at the Food Biotechnology Department, Instituto de la Grasa (CSIC) in Seville, Spain, conducted research on the antimicrobial activity of several products. Vinegar and red and white wines were among the products tested. (Note: The focus of the research was olive oil, but it confirmed other findings related to vinegar and red and white wines.) The following microorganisms were used in the study: S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, S. Enteritidis, E.coli 0157:H7, S.sonnei and Yersinia sp.

Among the items tested, vinegar (5% acetic acid) showed the strongest bactericidal activity against all strains tested, which was attributed to its high acetic acid content. The researchers noted their study confirmed previous results. It was noted that both red and white wines exhibited bactericidal activity, in particular against Salmonella Enteritidis and Yersinia sp. S. aureus and L. monocytogenes were the least sensitive to the wines. The research was published in the May 2007 issue of the Journal of Food Protection (Vol. 70, No. 5, 2007).

November 2006

Study Suggests Vinegar Increases Calcium Absorption from Foods
University scientists in Ebetsu, Japan, have suggested that vinegar increases the extraction of calcium from food, based on two separate studies. The researchers say they found feeding laboratory animals a diet containing 1.6 percent vinegar for 32 days increased their absorption of calcium. Another study showed adding vinegar to boiling broth could boost the amount of calcium in chicken stock by 40 percent. The scientists believe the acetic acid in vinegar liquefies minerals in bones and shells. To read more, use the following link: www.thirdage.com

July 2006

Use of Vinegar to Treat Diabetes
On its Web site, KNBC in Los Angeles ran a story about the use of vinegar in treating diabetes. The segment titled, "Medical Minutes From Dr. Bruce Hensel," notes, "If you're diabetic ask your doctor if a little vinegar can reduce your need for medicines."

March 2006

Japanese Sleep-supporting Soft Drink Based on Tomato Vinegar
According to beverageworld.com, the Japanese household products maker, Lion Corp, has launched a sleep-supporting soft drink based on tomato vinegar. The product, called "Gussumin," is targeted mainly to women having difficulties with sleeping. Tomato vinegar, made from fermented tomatoes, contains the transmitter substance, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is said to have relaxing effects. It was developed as a result of joint research by a laboratory owned by Lion and a research center affiliated with Ota General Hospital in Kawasaki, Kanagawa Prefecture in eastern Japan. To learn more this product, use the following link: www.beverageworld.com

January 2006

Japanese Study Finds Vinegar Helps Suppress Rise in Blood Sugar Level
Earlier this month, the Mizkan Group in Japan released the results of its latest research on vinegar. The results indicated that consuming vinegar (about 15 ml), either by drinking it or having "vinegared" food, can suppress a rise in the postprandial glucose level. According to Japanese Corporate News Network (JCCN), the Mizkan Group conducted experiments with 12 adult women and compared two groups: one group consuming vinegar with a meal and the other without vinegar. The JCCN indicated that the company has confirmed that acetic acid plays a role in this suppressive effect. It was noted that these findings may contribute to research on glycolipid metabolism-related diseases. To view the entire article, please use the following link: http://www.japancorp.net/Article.Asp?Art_ID=11637

December 2005

Vinegar Curbs Appetite
The Vinegar Institute earlier reported that a recent Swedish study found that consuming vinegar with white bread cut expected rises in insulin and blood sugar. The study also found that subjects felt fuller. The research is titled, "Vinegar supplementation lowers glucose and insulin responses and increases satiety after a bread meal in healthy subjects" and was published in the September 2005 issue of the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

According to the research, "A significant dose-response relation was seen at 30 min for blood glucose and serum insulin responses; the higher the acetic acid level, the lower the metabolic response. Furthermore, the rating of satiety was directly related to the acetic acid level." The article notes that there is a rapid increase in obesity and diseases related to insulin resistance syndrome (IRS). It is also noted that evidence exists to substantiate that a diet characterized by a low GI (glycemic index) has benefits in both prevention and treatment of several diseases linked to IRS, such as cardiovascular disease.

Additionally, the researchers conclude, "The selection of pickled and fermented products or meal additives, and the use of vinegar-based drinks, which are currently introduced in the market, may provide means to reach efficient levels of acetic acid. Addition of vinegar to carbohydrate-rich meals of high-GI character, or the use of, for example, homofermentative, acetic acid producing starter cultures offers a potential to lower the GI and increase the postmeal satiety. The possible long-term health benefits of including pickled products or fermented products in the diet need to be examined." The researchers also note that the level of acetic acid needed to elicit a response might be difficult to ingest as a salad dressing or as pickled vegetables.

June 2005

Vinegar Lowers Cholesterol
The Japanese Corporate News Network (JCNN) reported on a study that found the regular intake of vinegar (15 ml or more per day) can significantly lower the level of cholesterol in the blood. According to the JCNN article, "acetic acid has induced the effect." The results were presented at the 59th Annual Meeting for the Japanese Society of Nutrition and Food Science.

April 2005

Vinegar as a Weapon Against Cancer
The A.P. John Institute for Cancer Research issued a press release on acetic acid's detrimental effect on cancer cells by inhibiting glycolysis, the energy-producing process in cells. The release notes, "...logic dictates that if you shut down Glycolysis with acetic acid, cancer cells will die from starvation." The release also states several times that vinegar is a natural source of acetic acid. Additionally, the article mentions citric acid and notes, "Citric Acid is readily converted into acetic acid in the body and when combined, prove to be valuable weapons in fighting cancer."

January 2005

Apple Cider Vinegar – An Approach to Treating Type 2 Diabetes
- A study performed at Arizona State University and published in Diabetes Care indicates the consumption of apple cider vinegar may play a role in slowing the rise of blood sugar after a high-carbohydrate meal. ABC News "Healthology" online reported the story on January 26. According to the study, Type 2 Diabetics, Prediabetics and healthy individuals consumed 2 tablespoons of apple cider vinegar in a glass of water sweetened with saccharine, or a placebo prior to consuming a breakfast containing 87 grams of carbohydrate. According to Dr. Carol Johnston, a researcher at Arizona State, vinegar consumption slowed the rise of blood sugar in all three groups up to 34%. It is thought that the vinegar interferes with the absorption of high-carbohydrate foods based on other studies done with rats and in a test tube.